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Annotated bibliography: Telephone counselling

Bassilios, B., Pirkis, J., King, K., Fletcher, J., Blashki, G., & Burgess, P. (2014). Evaluation of an Australian primary care telephone cognitive behavioural therapy pilot. Australian Journal of Primary Health, 20(1), 62.

This paper discusses a telephone-based cognitive behavioural therapy pilot project which was trialed from July 2008 to June 2010, using an Australian Government-funded primary mental health care program. Uptake, sociodemographic and clinical profile of consumers, precise nature of services delivered, and consumer outcome were all assessed using a web-based minimum datasets. Project officers and mental health professionals were interviewed to obtain details about the implementation of the pilot. In total, 548 general practitioners referred 908 consumers, who received 6607 sessions (33% via telephone) by 180 mental health professionals. Clients were mostly females with an average age of 37 years and had a diagnosis of depressive and/or anxiety disorders. Both telephone and face-to-face sessions of 60 minutes in length were run, delivering behavioural and cognitive therapy, often at no cost to clients. Several issues were identified by project officers and mental health professionals, during implementation. Face-to-face treatment is usually preferred by providers and clients, but having the option of telephone counselling is valued, especially for clients who would not otherwise access psychological services. Evidence from the positive client outcomes supports the practice of offering a choice of face-to-face or telephone counseling or a combination of the two. A limitation of this study was the absence of a non-treatment control group.

Best, D., Hall, K., Guthrie, A., Abbatangelo, M., Hunter, B., & Lubman, D. (2015). Development and implementation of a structured intervention for alcohol use disorders for telephone helpline services. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 33(1), 118.

This article details a pilot study of a six-session intervention for harmful alcohol use via a 24-hour alcohol and other drug (AOD) helpline. It aimed to evaluate the viability of telephone-delivered intervention for AOD treatment. The intervention included practice features from motivational interviewing, cognitive behavioural therapy, and node-link mapping. It was evaluated using a case file audit (n=30) and a structured telephone interview a month after the final session (n=22). Psychological distress in the participants was significantly reduced and average scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) dropped by more than 50%. The results indicate that telephone intervention offers effective and efficient treatment for individuals with alcohol use disorders who are unable or unwilling to access face-to-face treatment.

Constant, H. M. R. M., Figueiró, L. R., Tatay, C. M., Signor, L., & Fernandes, S. (2016). Alcohol User Profile after a Brief Motivational Intervention in Telephone Follow-up: Evidence Based on Coping Strategies. Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, 4 (254), 2.

The benefits of intervention in alcohol abuse varies among individuals in particular with relapse. This research studied alcohol cessation in 120 people over a 6 month period and evaluated the effect of brief motivational interviewing. The study surveyed 120 participants over the phone using the Coping Behaviours Inventory as a measure. The study included a control group of 50 participants who did not receive any intervention. Almost all those who received telephone counselling had quit drinking alcohol at the 6 month period, whereas most of those in the control group did not stop drinking alcohol. The study suggests this may be due to motivation to change and social support. A longer term study was recommended.

Gates, P. (2015). The effectiveness of helplines for the treatment of alcohol and illicit substance use. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 21(1), 18.

While tobacco helplines or quitlines are thought to be effective, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of helplines which treat other substance use. This study reviewed literature on illicit drug or alcohol (IDA) helplines to address this gap. Five databases were searched for literature published in English, which involved the use of a telephone counselling helpline for the treatment of illicit drug or alcohol use. The author excluded review papers, opinion pieces, letters or editorials, case studies, published abstracts and posters. The initial search identified 2178 articles which were reduced to 36 articles after removing duplicates and those meeting the exclusion criteria. Descriptive information was provided in 29 articles about 19 different IDA helplines internationally. Call rates in these services varied from 3.7 to over 23,000 calls per month. Evaluative information was found in nine articles covering eight different IDA helplines, four articles described an evaluation of treatment outcomes against a control group and five articles contained details on treatment satisfaction or service utilisation. The study indicates that there is evidence that these services are effective. The studies in the review had poor consistency in their measures with few using randomized control groups. Limitations included that the articles were not evaluated by two independent researchers and the authors of the articles were not contacted for further information.

Haregu, T. N., Chimeddamba, O., & Islam, M. R. (2015). Effectiveness of Telephone-Based Therapy in the Management of Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. SM Journal of Depression Research and Treatment, 1(2), 1006.

This review was conducted as a gap was identified in systematic reviews identifying the effectiveness of telephone-based therapy for the treatment of depression. A total of nine papers were identified as meeting the selection criteria and were reviewed by the authors. It concluded that telephone counselling delivered by experienced and trained therapists is effective in treating depression and it suggested it is more effective than face-to-face but further studies are recommended.

Heinemans, N., Toftgård, M., Damström-Thakker, K., & Galanti, M. R. (2014). An evaluation of long-term changes in alcohol use and alcohol problems among clients of the Swedish National Alcohol Helpline. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 9(1), 22.

This study evaluated alcohol reduction and AUDIT scores in participants utilising a standalone telephone counselling service in the form of an alcohol hotline, employing trained counsellors. The data was collected by telephone survey from 191 participants at the first call and 12 months later. Change in AUDIT score was used as the primary outcome and the number of counselling sessions defined the exposure intensity. Most participants reduced their alcohol intake and AUDIT score in the year of the study and 50% reported better mental health. These figures were supported by other studies. They also cited a study which indicated that telephone counselling sessions with one face-to-face consultation had significantly better outcomes than face-to-face consultations alone.

Le Gresley, H., Darling, C., & Reddy, P. (2013). New South Wales rural and remote communities’ perception of mental health telephone support services. In 12th National Rural Health Conference, http://nrha. org. au/12nrhc/wpcontent/uploads/2013/06/Le-Gresley-Helen_ppr. pdf.

This study examined perceived barriers to telephone counseling in rural communities. The data was collected using surveys and there were 213 participants. Most of the participants felt it was a cost-cutting option which was not as effective as face-to-face counselling. Cost of accessing the services using a mobile phone was also quoted as being a barrier, as was being placed on hold or not getting through and having to repeat their story to different therapists. Poor marketing of the different services led to confusion on which was the best service to access.

Tse, S., Campbell, L., Rossen, F., Wang, C. W., Jull, A., Yan, E., & Jackson, A. (2013). Face-to-face and telephone counseling for problem gambling: A pragmatic multisite randomized study. Research on Social Work Practice, 23(1), 57.

This was a randomised study which aimed to compare the effectiveness of telephone and face-to-face counselling in treating problematic gambling. Psychological interventions were provided to 92 participants either by telephone or face-to-face over a 3 month period. Data was collected using surveys and questionnaires and significant changes were found over time in hours and money spent gambling and gambling beliefs. The study indicated that both face-to face and telephone counselling were equally effective in reducing problematic gambling. Limitations included the lack of a control group and the high rate of attrition of the participants, with only 27 completing the program.

Van Horn, D. H. A., Drapkin, M., Lynch, K. G., Rennert, L., Goodman, J. D., Thomas, T., … McKay, J. R. (2015). Treatment choices and subsequent attendance by substance-dependent patients who disengage from intensive outpatient treatment. Addiction Research and Theory, 23(5), 391.

This study examined continual engagement rates in alternative treatment options in patients who had previously disengaged from intensive outpatient programs (IOP). Alternatives included return to IOP, individual psychotherapy, telephone counselling, medication management and no treatment. Of the 96 people contacted 6 chose telephone counselling and there were no differences seen in engagement with any of the treatment options. The limitations included the very small sample size and that participants were contacted by a researcher with whom they had had no previous engagement and asked to select a treatment option.

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Annotated bibliography: Comorbidity

Bonevski, B., Regan, T., Paul, C., Baker, A. L., & Bisquera, A. (2014). Associations between alcohol, smoking, socioeconomic status and comorbidities: evidence from the 45 and Up Study. Drug and Alcohol Review, 33(2), 169-176.

This study aimed to examine if there were any links between mental illness and low socioeconomic status (SES) and concurrent tobacco and alcohol consumption. Data was obtained from the 45 and Up Study of 267153 adults aged over 45 in New South Wales, who completed a survey assessing alcohol, smoking, psychological distress, treatment for anxiety or depression and a range of SES factors. The research found strong links between low SES, treatment for anxiety or depression, psychological distress and concurrent tobacco smoking and alcohol misuse. It recommended a move away from the silo approach of addressing tobacco, alcohol and mental health, as it has proved ineffective in reducing the high smoking rates among people experiencing mental illness or seeking help for alcohol and other drug problems. It suggested a comprehensive and holistic approach was needed in treating these people. It also recommended more research to explore the potential for the community service sectors to provide treatment for people with multiple health and social concerns.

Brière, F. N., Rohde, P., Seeley, J. R., Klein, D., & Lewinsohn, P. M. (2014). Comorbidity between major depression and alcohol use disorder from adolescence to adulthood. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 55(3), 526-533.

The aim of this study was to examine the development of comorbidity between alcohol use disorder (AUD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). It focussed on the relationship between the disorders at different time periods in adolescence and young adulthood. Participants were interviewed at ages 16, 17, 24 and 30. There were 861 participants who were predominantly white and equally split between male and female. Comorbidity was found to be low in adolescence but increased in adulthood, with most individuals with one disorder having the other. The exception was women with MDD. Adolescents with AUD were at increased risk of developing MDD and young adults with MDD were more likely to develop AUD. People diagnosed with comorbidity of MDD and AUD had an increased risk of alcohol dependence, suicide attempts and life dissatisfaction than those diagnosed with either MDD or AUD. Lifetime rates of comorbid MDD and AUD were higher than in previous studies and the report recommended screening for the other disorder at regular intervals when an individual presented with either MDD or AUD.

Carter, M., Fisher, C., & Isaac, M. (2013). Recovery from comorbidity: depression or anxiety with alcohol misuse—a systematic and integrative supradisciplinary review and critical appraisal. SAGE Open, 3(4), 2158244013512133.

Comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders with alcohol misuse is not unusual. The study conducted a systematic literature review across different disciplines and research methodologies. Inconsistencies were found in definitions and measurements in the literature reviewed. Little evidence was found to support treatment plans. Competing paradigms in mental illness and addiction pose a barrier to progress and consumers frequently fall between the gaps. Clinicians feel undertrained and may be judgmental or unrecognise comorbidity, particularly in high risk populations. It suggested a consideration of different combinations of comorbidity and other factors such as social support, housing and employment which are crucial to recovery. It also recommended a need to build on the limited evidence and generalisation that was available.

Debell, F., Fear, N. T., Head, M., Batt-Rawden, S., Greenberg, N., Wessely, S., & Goodwin, L. (2014). A systematic review of the comorbidity between PTSD and alcohol misuse. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49(9), 1401-1425.

This systematic review was performed to ascertain the prevalence of comorbidity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol misuse and any associations between the conditions. The literature reviewed was limited to that published between 2007 and July 2012.   A total of 42 papers were included in the review, after reviewing 620 abstracts. The incidence of PTSD comorbid to alcohol misuse ranged from 2 to 63% and alcohol abuse comorbid to PTSD 9.8 to 61.3%, with most of the prevalence rates being greater than 10%. These results indicated a strong association between the disorders. Significant evidence was found for association between alcohol misuse and numbing symptoms and hyperarousal. The evidence from the review supports the need for screening comorbidity in individuals who are known to have PTSD or alcohol misuse.

Gorka, S. M., MacNamara, A., Aase, D. M., Proescher, E., Greenstein, J. E., Walters, R., … & Digangi, J. A. (2016). Impact of alcohol use disorder comorbidity on defensive reactivity to errors in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 30(7), 733.

Evidence suggests that people who suffer from both PTSD and alcohol use disorder (AUD) have a heightened defence reactivity. This then maintains both their drinking behaviours and their anxiety or hyperarousal symptoms. Few studies however, have established whether people with PTSD and AUD have greater defence reactivity than those with PTSD without AUD. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis. Error–related negativity (ERN) was measured, which is increased in anxious individuals and is thought to reflect defence reactivity to errors. Participants consisted of 66 male military veterans who were split into three groups:

  1. Controls with no PTSD or AUD
  2. Those with PTSD and no AUD
  3. Those with both PTSD and AUD

Those from the third group exhibited heightened ERN, whereas those in the first and second groups did not. This suggests that PTSD with AUD is a unique subtype of PTSD, with the comorbidity of AUD enhancing the defence reactivity in people with PTSD. The limitations in the study include the group size and demographics.

Leventhal, A. M., & Zvolensky, M. J. (2015). Anxiety, depression, and cigarette smoking: A transdiagnostic vulnerability framework to understanding emotion–smoking comorbidity. Psychological Bulletin, 141(1), 176.

The research on comorbidity between emotional disorders and cigarette smoking has centred on the symptoms of anxiety and depression rather than clinical and theoretical advancement. The researchers who performed this study hypothesized that emotional vulnerabilities or behavioural traits, which reflect maladaptive emotional responses link various depressive and anxiety disorders to smoking. They did a literature review on three emotional vulnerabilities implicated in smoking:

  1. Anhedonia (Anh.)
  2. Anxiety sensitivity (AS): fear of anxiety related sensations
  3. Distress tolerance (DT): ability to withstand distressing situations

They concluded that the three collectively form a foundation for multiple emotional disorders; amplify the anticipated and actual affect enhancing properties of smoking; promote progression towards the smoking pathway and therefore are promising targets for smoking intervention. They used the information collected to propose a model linking emotional psychopathology to smoking:

  • Anh. amplifies smoking’s actual and expected pleasurable effects
  • AS increases smoking’s anxiety reducing effects
  • Low DT increases smoking’s distress reducing effects.

Together these factors reinforce smoking for individuals suffering from emotional disorders, which increases their risk of smoking initiation, progression, maintenance, not stopping, avoidance and relapse. They conclude that the results can be used for clinical and scientific implications that can be expanded to other comorbidities.

Riga, D., Schmitz, L. J., Van Der Harst, J. E., Van Mourik, Y., Hoogendijk, W. J., Smit, A. B., … & Spijker, S. (2014). A sustained depressive state promotes a guanfacine reversible susceptibility to alcohol seeking in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology, 39(5), 1115-1124.

The reported rates of comorbidity between AUD and MDD are high, but preclinical models studying how primary depression affects secondary AUD are lacking. This results in inadequate testing of drug treatment. The authors combined social defeat-induced persistent stress (SDPS) with operant self-administration (SA) concepts to assess causality between the disorders. They used guanfacine, a drug used to reduce cravings in humans against SDPS-induced change of operant alcohol SA. They socially defeated and isolated rats for at least 9 weeks, during which time they assessed depressive symptomology. The rats were then exposed to 5 months of operant SA concept, studying acquisition, motivation, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seek. Then at 6 months they measured the effects of the drug on motivation and relapse. The SDPS rats demonstrated significant changes to social and cognitive behaviour several months after defeat and increased motivation to obtain alcohol. Guanfacine reduced the effects on motivation caused by SDPS. The authors state that their model mimics the symptomology of a sustained depressive state and resultant vulnerability to alcohol abuse and that SDPS is strongly associated with alcohol intake and relapse. They argue that the study indicated that guanfacine has potential as a new treatment for patients with MDD and AUD comorbidity, as it is effective in reducing the sensitivity to alcohol and alcohol-induced stimuli. The limitation to this study is that it was performed on rats so may not translate to humans.

Scott, C. K., Dennis, M. L., & Lurigio, A. J. (2015). Comorbidity among female detainees in drug treatment: an exploration of internalizing and externalizing disorders. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 38(1), 35.

This study examined the incidence and comorbidity of major psychiatric disorders in female prisoners who were participating in drug treatment programs in a large American prison. The Needs Inventory was used, which includes a large mixture of methods to capture demographics, psychological problems, substance use and drug treatment histories and their criminal thinking tendencies. Two hundred and fifty-three women participated in the study, who were then split into three groups: those with substance use disorders (SUD) but no psychiatric disorders (24%); those with one psychiatric disorder (34%) and those with both internalising and externalising comorbidities (42%). Over 75% of the participants had comorbid psychiatric disorders and SUD, which are linked to lower self-esteem, increased drug use severity and levels of criminal thinking. The authors concluded that female prisoners in drug treatment programs need interventions focussing on both criminal and psychiatric recidivism, both whilst in prison and in the post-release phase. Limitations in the study are that it is a female only study and results may differ in a male population, and it was limited to those in drug treatment.

Emmerik‐van Oortmerssen, K., Glind, G., Koeter, M. W., Allsop, S., Auriacombe, M., Barta, C., … & Casas, M. (2014). Psychiatric comorbidity in treatment‐seeking substance use disorder patients with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results of the IASP study. Addiction, 109(2), 262-272.

Previous studies have indicated the attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is highly comorbid with SUD, and that both ADHD and SUD are associated with other comorbid conditions including mental health disorders. The studies show that the disorders both independently and together increase the risk of comorbidity with psychiatric disorders. The objective of the study was to examine comorbidity patterns in adults seeking treatment for SUD, with or without ADHD. Different subtypes of ADHD and comorbidity patterns were examined, along with differences in gender and primary substance of abuse. They focussed on MDD, current (hypo)manic episode (HME), antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD). They screened 3558 people from 47 centres in 10 countries, with a final group of 1205 participants. They found that MDD, BPD, ASPD and HME were all more prevalent in participants with ADHD than those without. Both BPD and MDD had increased comorbidity when alcohol was the primary substance of abuse as opposed to drugs. Comorbidity differed between ADHD subtypes with increased MDD in the inattentive and combined subtypes, increased HME and APSD in the hyperactive/impulsive and combined subtypes and increased BPD in all subtypes. The incidence of at least one comorbid disorder was 75% in those with ADHD, compared to 37% in those without. They concluded that treatment-seeking SUD patients with ADHD are at a very high risk of developing psychiatric disorders. The limitations of the study include the data collected was all self-reported and standardised measurement tools were not used between the different centres.

All the articles except the first one are Open Access and can be read by clicking on their titles. The top one is available from our library database to all staff and volunteers at Healthy Options Australia.

 


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Annotated bibliography: LGBTIQ+

The acronym LGBTIQ+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, queer and other sexual minorities) is used in the title, but where other acronyms were used by the writers, these have been adopted in the bibliography.

Baskerville, N. B., Dash, D., Shuh, A., Wong, K., Abramowicz, A., Yessis, J., & Kennedy, R. D. (2017). Tobacco use cessation interventions for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer youth and young adults: A scoping review. Preventive Medicine Reports.

Canadian statistics have indicated that LGBTQ+ youth and young adults have a significantly higher smoking rate than their non-LGBTQ+ counterparts. It has been suggested that this may be due to minority stress and discrimination. This has led to a need for culturally appropriate prevention and cessation programs tailored to the needs of this population. A scoping review aiming to map the literature on the programs available for LGBTQ+ young adults and youth was performed. It identified a large research gap in smoking prevention and cessation programs for this group, with little aimed specifically at the young LGBTQ+ age group. A need for community focused, effective and engaging community programs for this group was recognised.

Bond, K. S., Jorm, A. F., Kelly, C. M., Kitchener, B. A., Morris, S. L., & Mason, R. J. (2017). Considerations when providing mental health first aid to an LGBTIQ person: a Delphi study. Advances in Mental Health, 1-15.

The aim of this study was to develop guidelines for delivering appropriate and sensitive mental health first aid to LGBTIQ people, which can be used in conjunction with existing guidelines. The Delphi method was utilized, where a consensus is gained by a team, in this case a group of mental health professionals who either identified as LGBTIQ or had experience in working with this group. Numerous sources have identified a higher prevalence of mental health disorders, substance use disorders, suicidality and self-harm in LGBTIQ populations so the development of appropriate guidelines was deemed as important. A systematic review of journal articles, websites and books was performed to develop a questionnaire of the knowledge, skills and actions needed for assisting an LGBTIQ person experiencing a mental health problem. The experts rated these over three rounds as to whether they should appear in the guidelines. The results highlighted the complexity of supporting an LGBTIQ person experiencing mental health problems, along with the diversity of the population and their differing needs. The limitation was that the study focused on a Western, English speaking population. It recommended expanding it to examine the needs of Indigenous Australian and culturally and linguistically diverse LGBTIQ groups.

Colpitts, E., & Gahagan, J. (2016). The utility of resilience as a conceptual framework for understanding and measuring LGBTQ health. International Journal for Equity in Health, 15(1), 60.

LGBTQ health research has traditionally focused on the deficit model and not on the ways that individuals in this group can improve their health. It is argued by the authors of this paper that a culturally competent health policy requires an evidence base that is focused on strengths rather than weaknesses. A scoping review was performed on strength-based approaches to LGBTQ health which indicated the concept of resilience as a key component. This resilience may have been built up due to discrimination and adversity. It identified a need for further research into LGBTQ- specific models of health policy and measures of resilience. They concluded that the resilience of LGBTQ population is embedded in advancing their health, although more research needs to be done before it is useful as a measurement of LGBTQ health.

Kelly, J., Davis, C., & Schlesinger, C. (2015). Substance use by same sex attracted young people: prevalence, perceptions and homophobia. Drug and Alcohol Review, 34(4), 358-365.

Research has indicated that LGBT people use alcohol and drugs (AOD) more than their heterosexual counterparts, but usage by LGBT youth is less understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and perception of AOD use in LGBT youth in comparison with heterosexual youth. The impacts of homophobia and minority stress were also examined. It found that AOD use is higher in LGBT youth than heterosexual youth, with significantly higher rates in LGBT people under 18 years old. Those who believed homophobia impacted on AOD use were much more likely to use AOD themselves. It recommended that AOD agencies better support LGBT youth by screening for sexuality and gender identity and exploring issues specific to this group to improve the services that are offered.

Kidd, S. A., Howison, M., Pilling, M., Ross, L. E., & McKenzie, K. (2016). Severe mental illness in LGBT populations: A scoping review. Psychiatric Services, 67(7), 779-783.

The impact of stigma on the mental health of sexual and gender minority groups has widespread recognition. This is coupled with a movement towards increasing diversity in mental health services, but relatively little has been developed for severe mental illness. The authors define severe mental illness as that which is associated with psychosis and requires extensive periods of inpatient or outpatient treatment. A literature review was conducted which aimed to answer the question “What factors and strategies need to be considered when developing services for individuals from sexual or gender minority groups who are experiencing severe mental illness?” The 27 articles reviewed were in the main North American. A general dissatisfaction in mental health services was identified amongst the LGBT population and little evidence regarding culturally specific interventions. An increased risk of severe mental illness has been suggested which has been associated with discrimination. The report highlighted a need for research into specific interventions for LGBT people with severe mental illness, along with studies to inform efforts to reduce morbidity associated with discrimination.

Lea, T., Kolstee, J., Lambert, S., Ness, R., Hannan, S., & Holt, M. (2017). Methamphetamine treatment outcomes among gay men attending a LGBTI-specific treatment service in Sydney, Australia. PloS One, 12(2), e0172560

Gay and bisexual men (GBM) report higher rates of methamphetamine use compared to heterosexual men, and thus have a heightened risk of developing problems from their use. We examined treatment outcomes among GBM clients receiving outpatient counseling at a LGBTI-specific, harm reduction treatment service in Sydney, Australia. GBM receiving treatment for methamphetamine use from ACON’s Substance Support Service between 2012–15 (n = 101) were interviewed at treatment commencement, and after 4 sessions (n = 60; follow-up 1) and 8 sessions (n = 32; follow-up 2). At each interview, clients completed measures of methamphetamine use and dependence, other substance use, injecting risk practices, psychological distress and quality of life. The median age of participants was 41 years and 56.4% identified as HIV-positive. Participants attended a median of 5 sessions and attended treatment for a median of 112 days. There was a significant reduction in the median days of methamphetamine use in the previous 4 weeks between baseline (4 days), follow-up 1 (2 days) and follow-up 2 (2 days; p = .001). There was a significant reduction in the proportion of participants reporting methamphetamine dependence between baseline (92.1%), follow-up 1 (78.3%) and follow-up 2 (71.9%, p < .001). There were also significant reductions in psychological distress (p < .001), and significant improvements in quality of life (p < .001). Clients showed reductions in methamphetamine use and improved psychosocial functioning over time, demonstrating the potential effectiveness of a LGBTI-specific treatment service (copy of abstract used).

Skerrett, D. M., Kõlves, K., & De Leo, D. (2015). Are LGBT populations at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors in Australia? Research findings and implications. Journal of Homosexuality, 62(7), 883-901.

This is a review of Australian peer-reviewed literature published between 2008 and 2012 about suicidality in LGBT populations. It was performed to collect evidence on their reportedly higher incidence of suicidality and to identify predictive factors such as coming out, homophobia and non-acceptance by family and friends. The authors studied twelve articles, none of which was population-based. The evidence confirmed that LGBT people are at higher risk of suicidal behaviours Gaps in the literature included a lack of research on suicide deaths and a reliance on cross-sectional studies and convenience sampling usually with self-selected participants. Risk factors for suicidal behaviour in common with the non-LGBT population included mental illness and substance abuse, along with the unique factors discussed earlier. It was confirmed that gay men are a higher risk of suicidality than heterosexual men are, but at lower risk than bisexual men. The authors recommend that further research be undertaken to provide the evidence for future targeted intervention programs.

Stanley, N., Ellis, J., Farrelly, N., Hollinghurst, S., Bailey, S., & Downe, S. (2017). “What matters to someone who matters to me”: using media campaigns with young people to prevent interpersonal violence and abuse. Health Expectations, 20(4), 648-654.

This article examine ways that media campaigns could be used to prevent interpersonal violence and abuse (IPVA). Whilst not specifically about LGBT young adults it was identified that as although there is evidence of IPVA in LGBT communities on a par with heterosexual young adults, there is a lack of materials aimed at this group. This can be complicated by the threat of unwanted ‘outing’, particularly in young adults who may still be coming to terms with their sexuality. This lower disclosure rate results in a reluctance to access support and consequently support services are scarcer. Research and consultation with the target audience is important in producing effective campaigns.

Su, D., Irwin, J. A., Fisher, C., Ramos, A., Kelley, M., Mendoza, D. A. R., & Coleman, J. D. (2016). Mental health disparities within the LGBT population: A comparison between transgender and nontransgender individuals. Transgender Health, 1(1), 12-20.

A 2011 survey in the USA indicated that 41% of the transgender population had considered suicide compared to 1.6%of the general population. This could be associated with discrimination, which is a risk factor for depression. Transgender people commonly experience discrimination, including in healthcare settings. In addition, they often experience feelings of shame, rejection, isolation and anger, all of which may lead to depression. The study compared transgender participants with non-transgender participants for discrimination, depression and attempted suicide. It identified that transgender people had a higher incidence of all three, which was reduced with self-acceptance of their identity.

Talley, A. E., Gilbert, P. A., Mitchell, J., Goldbach, J., Marshall, B. D., & Kaysen, D. (2016). Addressing gaps on risk and resilience factors for alcohol use outcomes in sexual and gender minority populations. Drug and Alcohol Review, 35(4), 484-493.

This mini literature review aimed to examine the state of alcohol-related research in LGBT populations and in doing so identify any gaps in knowledge. Research was classified according to age groups and biological gender. The research contributed to a growing understanding of the differences in sub-groups within the LGBT population. Influences which account for these differences were identified but there are still large gaps in the knowledge, including the role of gender identity. The importance of how minority stress and society and relationships contribute to alcohol misuse over time were also identified. More studies are recommended to gain a clearer understanding.

 

With the exception of the articles from Drug and Alcohol Review all these articles are Open Access and can be retrieved using the links. The Drug and Alcohol Review articles are available on the library database to Healthy Options Australia staff and volunteers.


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Reading list: Domestic/ intimate partner violence

We have recently increased our e-book collection including purchasing a copy of the Happiness Trap Pocketbook. To raise awareness we are going to publish recommended reading lists on different topics. All our new e-books and e-journals can be accessed from any HOA computer. Please contact the librarian if you experience difficulty accessing any of them. Please note all of our e-books except The Happiness Trap are only accessible to one user at a time. The Happiness Trap is unlimited user access

Fall, K. A., & Howard, S. (2017). Alternatives to Domestic Violence : A Homework Manual for Battering Intervention Groups. New York, NY: Routledge.

Iwi, K., & Newman, C. (2015). Engaging with Perpetrators of Domestic Violence : Practical Techniques for Early Intervention. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Iwi, K., & Newman, C. (2011). Picking up the Pieces After Domestic Violence : A Practical Resource for Supporting Parenting Skills. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Taft, C. T., Murphy, C. M., & Creech, S. K. (2016). Trauma-informed Treatment and Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

 


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Mental health in rural and remote communties: annotated bibliography

Allen, J., Inder, K. J., Lewin, T. J., Attia, J., & Kelly, B. J. (2012). Social support and age influence distress outcomes differentially across urban, regional and remote Australia: an exploratory study. BMC Public Health, 12(1), 928.
The aim of this study was to examine whether increasing remoteness had any effect on psychological distress. 4219 people over 55 years were surveyed across New South Wales about their levels of social support, demographic details, remoteness and levels of psychological distress experienced. The report concluded that remoteness could reduce the levels of psychological distress associated with a lack of social support. This may be due to people living in remote areas having a higher level of self-sufficiency. The study was limited in that it only studied older people.
Blignault, I., Haswell, M., & Pulver, L. J. (2016). The value of partnerships: lessons from a multi‐site evaluation of a national social and emotional wellbeing program for Indigenous youth. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 40(S1).
This study provides the results of a three-year evaluation of SAM our way- a program that aimed to improve the social and emotional wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander living in remote and regional areas of Australia. Five out of the 14 sites were studied, selecting from diverse locations over several states and in depth case studies were performed. The best performing sites were those where strong local partnerships had been formed with the local Indigenous community. Several lessons were learned including the importance of program design and resourcing and ways of working. It was essential to build partnerships with the local community including training and engaging members and working consistently with them, taking things slowly. Evaluation is essential and needs to be built into the programs. Activities need to be engaging and, effective integrating with other programs and services.
Carey, T. A., Wakerman, J., Humphreys, J. S., Buykx, P., & Lindeman, M. (2013). What primary health care services should residents of rural and remote Australia be able to access? A systematic review of “core” primary health care services. BMC Health Services Research, 13(1), 178.
A systematic review was performed to address which primary healthcare services should be accessible to all Australians regardless of geography. It was done in response to the inequality in access to healthcare faced by those in remote and rural communities. It concluded that defining a list of core services was difficult but that they should be an appropriate fit for service and evidence-based. Policy makers, consumers, practitioners and researchers need to work together in developing them to ensure that they are affordable and accessible to all.
Inder, K. J., Handley, T. E., Fitzgerald, M., Lewin, T. J., Coleman, C., Perkins, D., & Kelly, B. J. (2012). Individual and district-level predictors of alcohol use: cross sectional findings from a rural mental health survey in Australia. BMC Public Health, 12(1), 586.
Excessive alcohol use has been cited as a problem in rural and remote Australia and this study aimed to examine the geographical variation in rates and the potential effects of socio-economic disadvantage, population change and remoteness from services in contributing to this disparity. A survey was performed on 1981 people randomly taken from the electoral role using the Australian Rural Mental Health Study. It found that gender, age, marital status and personality status were the biggest contributors to at risk alcohol use. Financial advantage and experiencing multiple recent adverse life events also contributed to increased alcohol use. Relatively few district-level factors were linked to increased alcohol consumption after controlling for other factors.
Inder, K. J., Handley, T. E., Johnston, A., Weaver, N., Coleman, C., Lewin, T. J., & Kelly, B. J. (2014). Determinants of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts: parallel cross-sectional analyses examining geographical location. BMC Psychiatry, 14(1), 208.
Suicide rates are consistently higher in rural than urban settings so this study aimed to examine if there were any differences in determinants of suicidal ideation and attempts between the areas. The main determinants were psychological distress and mental illness. Parallel cross-sectional analyses were performed using data from the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (n=8463) and the Australian Rural and Mental Health Study (n=634). The former was under representative of rural and remote participants and the latter was over representative. Geographical location was not found to be associated with suicidal ideation or attempt, but socio-economic factors were significantly associated with higher rates of suicidality. Access to lethal means and isolation, resulting in not being found quickly may also affect the rate of suicidality. It stressed the importance of developing and evaluating targeted evidence-based intervention strategies for at risk groups.
Morandini, J. S., Blaszczynski, A., Dar‐Nimrod, I., & Ross, M. W. (2015). Minority stress and community connectedness among gay, lesbian and bisexual Australians: a comparison of rural and metropolitan localities. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 39(3), 260-266.
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of locality on minority stress experienced by lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) Australians. Increased stress and lack of community connectedness experienced by LGB individuals has been associated with increased depression, drug and alcohol use and suicidality. Data was collected by survey (n=1306) to assess minority stressors, connection with community and social isolation. The results were than analysed to assess the effect of locality on these stressors independent of gender, age, ethnicity, education and income. Those living in rural and remote areas and unexpectedly outer metropolitan areas experienced higher levels of stressors and high LGB disconnection than those living in inner metropolitan areas. Reluctance to disclose sexuality, including increased concealment of sexuality from friends and internalised homophobia in men were more common in rural and remote communities. This will put them at increased risk of psychiatric morbidity. It recommends health promotion in these communities that is aimed at reducing homophobia and discrimination and support services to assist those struggling with stigma and isolation.


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October PD

You can add to the professional development post by commenting below or emailing the library.

Online resources

Webpage

Drug and alcohol use

An Australian Government website providing information and resources for drug and alcohol issues

Read – professional reading

Available from the library database

Dertadian, G. C., Dixon, T. C., Iversen, J., & Maher, L. (2017). Self‐limiting non‐medical pharmaceutical opioid use among young people in Sydney, Australia: An exploratory study. Drug And Alcohol Review, 36(5), 643-650.

Patrick, M. E., Evans-Polce, R., Kloska, D. D., Maggs, J. L., & Lanza, S. T. (2017). Age-Related Changes in Associations Between Reasons for Alcohol Use and High-Intensity Drinking Across Young Adulthood. Journal Of Studies On Alcohol And Drugs, 78(4), 558-570

Rowe, R., Berger, I., Yaseen, B., & Copeland, J. (2017). Risk and blood‐borne virus testing among men who inject image and performance enhancing drugs, Sydney, Australia. Drug And Alcohol Review, 36(5), 658-666.

Silins, E., Swift, W., Slade, T., Toson, B., Rodgers, B., & Hutchinson, D. M. (2017). A prospective study of the substance use and mental health outcomes of young adult former and current cannabis users. Drug And Alcohol Review, 36(5), 618-625.

Simonavicius, E., Robson, D., McEwen, A., & Brose, L. S. (2017). Cessation support for smokers with mental health problems: a survey of resources and training needs. Journal Of Substance Abuse Treatment, 80(1), 37-44.

Open Access Articles

Roger Collier (2017). Harm reduction is about providing safety for patients. CMAJ 2017;189 doi:10.1503/cmaj.1095489

Mishna, F., Fantus, S., & McInroy, L. B. (2017). Informal use of information and communication technology: Adjunct to traditional face-to-face social work practice. Clinical Social Work Journal, 45(1), 49-55.
Pegg, K. J., O’Donnell, A. W., Lala, G., & Barber, B. L. (2017). The role of online social identity in the relationship between alcohol-related content on social networking sites and adolescent alcohol use. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking.
Shepherd, S. M., Delgado, R. H., Sherwood, J., & Paradies, Y. (2017). The impact of indigenous cultural identity and cultural engagement on violent offending. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 50.
Smolkina, M., K. I. Morley, F. Rijsdijk, A. Agrawal, J. E. Bergin, E. C. Nelson, D. Statham, N. G. Martin, and M. T. Lynskey. “Cannabis and Depression: A Twin Model Approach to Co-morbidity.” Behavior Genetics 47, no. 4 (2017): 394-404.

Open access online journal

BMC Psychology:An open access peer-reviewed journal covering all aspects of psychology

Useful resource

Drug and Alcohol Findings: Drug  Matrix Cell: Reducing Harm

Drug Treatment Matrix initiates a fortnightly course on the evidence base for harm reduction and treatment in relation to illegal drugs. Comprehensively updated, the cell explores key research on interventions to reduce the harms to the user as a result of their drug use.

e-Book of the month

Schiraldi, G. R. (2016). The Self-Esteem Workbook. Oakland: New Harbinger Publications

The Self-Esteem Workbook includes up-to-date information on brain plasticity, and new chapters on forgiveness, mindfulness, and cultivating loving kindness and compassion. If your self-esteem is based solely on performance—if you view yourself as someone who’s worthy only when you’re performing well or acknowledged as doing a good job—the way you feel about yourself will always depend on external factors. Your self-esteem affects everything you do, so if you feel unworthy or your confidence is shaped by others, it can be a huge problem.With this second edition of The Self-Esteem Workbook, you’ll learn to see yourself through loving eyes by realizing that you are inherently worthy, and that comparison-based self-criticism is not a true measure of your value. In addition to new chapters on cultivating compassion, forgiveness, and unconditional love for yourself and others—all of which improve self-esteem—you’ll find cutting-edge information on brain plasticity and how sleep, exercise, and nutrition affect your self-esteem.Developing and maintaining healthy self-esteem is key for living a happy life, and with the new research and exercises you’ll find in this updated best-selling workbook, you’ll be ready to start feeling good about yourself and finally be the best that you can be (copied from the EBSCO database).

Free to download for all HOA staff from the library catalogue on work computers

Attend – informal learning sessions, journal club, seminar series

Insight Queensland

Free training sessions at Biala Community Health Centre in Brisbane, unless otherwise specified including:

  • Introduction to motivational interviewing for AOD use: October 5 (Brisbane), October 6 (Townsville), December 1 (Cairns) 9:00-16:30. Prerequisite online induction module 5
  • AOD relapse, prevention and management: October 17 (Brisbane), November 10 (Townsville), November 27 (Cairns) 9:00-16:30. Prerequisite online induction module 5
  • Family inclusive practice in AOD treatment: October 26 (Brisbane) 9:00-16:30.
  • Introduction to AOD clinical supervision: October 31 (Brisbane) 9:00-16:30
  • Introduction to mindfulness in AOD: October 12 (Brisbane) 9:00-16:30

Register here

Online induction modules are a prerequisite to some of the courses. To access and download them visit www.insightqld.org

Listen – podcasts, webinars

Insight Qld

Free webinars on Wednesdays 10:00-11:00 (AEST). Access here

  • October 4: AOD and the Law – What you should know
  • October 11: Substance use disorders among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People in Custody; a public health opportunity
  • October 18: GEM: Growth and Empowerment Measure
  • October 25: “Getting Ready for Change”: Improving entry and retention into allied health services

More details here

Targeting anti-smoking efforts for disadvantaged groups.

In this podcast Professor Billie Bonevski is interviewed by the Medical Journal of Australia, where she discusses some of the issues effecting different population groups including Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders, Culturally and Linguistically Diverse communities and those from low socio-economic groups. Listen to it here

Non-suicidal self-injury within LGBTI Communities

The LGBT Alliance Mindout project is hosting a presentation by Madeline Wishart from Youth Support Advisory Service in Melbourne to help workers understand self-injury and how it differs behaviourally for suicide. She will also present on her research on sexual orientation and how it impacts on non-suicidal self-injury.

The free webinar is on Tuesday 26/09/2017 from 1-2pm. Register here.


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Annotated bibliography: Closing the gap in Indigenous mental health

Calma, T., Dudgeon, P., & Bray, A. (2017). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander social and emotional wellbeing and mental health. Australian Psychologist, 52(4), 255-260.

This report identifies the large gap suffered by the Indigenous community as compared to non-Indigenous Australians. It discusses several reasons for this including the trauma of colonisation, racism, poverty, disconnection from their culture and healthcare practices that are not culturally appropriate. It emphasises that Indigenous mental health should be an approach that improves the social and emotional well-being (SEWB) of Indigenous Australians. This a more holistic and collaborative approach to health than the Western concept and it incorporates the many socio-economic factors that influence Aboriginal health with an emphasis on prevention. Community engagement, involvement and empowerment are essential components of any initiative, along with self-determination and a recognition of cultural differences.

Carey, T. A., Dudgeon, P., Hammond, S. W., Hirvonen, T., Kyrios, M., Roufeil, L., & Smith, P. (2017). The Australian Psychological Society’s apology to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Australian Psychologist, 52(4), 261-267.

This report examines the history of The Australian Psychology Society’s (APS) treatment of Aboriginal Australians. It discusses the lack of involvement of Indigenous Australians in policy and advisory roles and admits to a lack of articles in Australian Psychologist about improving Indigenous SEWB. It details the improvements it has made over the years including an Indigenous psychology group, education in culturally appropriate treatment and encouragement to Indigenous people to become psychologists. This progress culminated in an apology to the Indigenous peoples of Australian in 2016 that was well thought out, discussed, and received positive feedback from both Indigenous and professional groups. It acknowledges that it still has a way to go to bridge the gap.

Dudgeon, P., Bray, A., D’Costa, B., & Walker, R. (2017). Decolonising psychology: Validating social and emotional wellbeing. Australian Psychologist, 52(4), 316-325.

This report examines each of the seven domains, which interconnect to maintain the SEWB of Indigenous Australians. These are mind and emotions, family and kinship, community, culture, Country and spirituality. It is important that these are incorporated into any program with the aim of improving the mental health of Aboriginals. It explains how disconnect from any of these domains can be detrimental to the mental health or SEWB of each individual.

Geia, L., Pearson, L., & Sweet, M. (2017). Narratives of Twitter as a platform for professional development, innovation, and advocacy. Australian Psychologist, 52(4), 280-287.

This report examines how Twitter engagement can help to raise health professionals’ awareness of SEWB in Indigenous Australians. It utilises narrative methodology supplied by an Indigenous nurse-midwife, an Indigenous educator and a non-Indigenous journalist. Innovative platforms are developed on Twitter such as @IndigenousX which enable Indigenous people to reflect upon and discuss their SEWB. These accounts can then be followed by health professionals to gain an Indigenous perspective own health and SEWB. Indigenous people in turn benefit by having an arena for discussion and reflection. It identifies a gap in knowledge about whether psychologists are engaging in the sphere and if so are they benefitting from it?

Health, H. E., & Aboriginal. (2012). Closing the gap in a regional health service in NSW: a multistrategic approach to addressing individual and institutional racism. New South Wales Public Health Bulletin, 23(3-4), 63-67.

Hunter New England Health services the largest Aboriginal community in New South Wales. It identified problems with individual and institutional racism and culturally insensitive practices. The report details the steps it took to address these problems and thus reduce the gap in healthcare experienced by Aboriginal people. Partnerships were formed with Aboriginal groups and advice was sought from them. Three strategies were employed: staff and managerial training and education; leadership and consultation; negotiation and partnerships. It stresses the importance of ongoing commitment to address this organisational goal.

Otim, M., Kelaher, M., Anderson, I., & Doran, C. (2014). Priority setting in Indigenous health: assessing priority setting process and criteria that should guide the health system to improve Indigenous Australian health. International Journal for Equity in Health, 13(1), 1-12.

There is a large gap in health outcomes between Indigenous and other Australians, which the Australian Government has pledged to close. The objective of this study was to gauge the perceptions of Indigenous and non-Indigenous decision makers of priority setting in Indigenous healthcare. It identified an economic approach to priority setting was acceptable and useful in Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services with the potential to utilise evidence in its implementation. This use of evidence will help to maximise health outcomes for Aboriginal people thus reducing the health care gap experienced by them.

Ralph, S., & Ryan, K. (2017). Addressing the mental health gap in working with Indigenous youth: Some considerations for non‐Indigenous psychologists working with Indigenous youth. Australian Psychologist, 52(4), 288-298.

Indigenous youth between the ages of 15-24 are recognised as one of the most disadvantaged and vulnerable groups in Australia. The article reviews the current knowledge about the mental health needs and SEWB of this group. Psychological strategies such as the Access to Allied Psychological Services program are examined as to their relevance and effectiveness. It identifies that whilst Indigenous mental health workers are the ideal, but due to a lack of a skilled and available workforce who are able to deal with the complexity of needs in this client group, non-Indigenous psychologists need to be used. It does however confirm that the psychologist needs to be culturally aware of the needs of the youth in order to engage with them and successfully manage their treatment.

Smith, S., O’Grady, L., Cubillo, C., & Cavanagh, S. (2017). Using culturally appropriate approaches to the development of KidsMatter resources to support the social and emotional wellbeing of Aboriginal children. Australian Psychologist, 52(4), 299-305.

KidsMatter is an Australian initiative aimed at improving the mental health of young children in primary school and early childhood centres. A need for resources aimed at improving the SEWB of Aboriginal children was identified. The report details the development of this project. The project utilised participatory action, narrative therapy and critically reflective practice to define the Aboriginal perspective of SEWB. Aboriginal cultural consultants worked collaboratively with schools, health professionals and members of the Aboriginal community to develop culturally appropriate and effective resources. This resulted in a collection of culturally appropriate and professional learning tools to use in the promotion of SEWB for Aboriginal children.

Togni, S. J. (2017). The Uti Kulintjaku Project: The path to clear thinking. An evaluation of an innovative, Aboriginal‐Led approach to developing bi‐cultural understanding of mental health and wellbeing. Australian Psychologist, 52(4), 268-279.

Uti kulintjaku (UK) means to think and understand clearly and the objective of the project was to strengthen the understanding of mental health between Aboriginal people and non-Aboriginal health professionals. This project examined an innovative approach to bridging the gap between Western health care and traditional Indigenous care. It involved a group of senior Indigenous women working collaboratively with non-Indigenous health care professionals, all of whom had substantial experience in working in Indigenous communities. The aim was bridge any misunderstandings caused by language differences and improve the SEWB of the community. The woman who participated in the project have become empowered as a team and have learnt a lot about themselves, whilst increasing their self-confidence. The use of culture has reinvigorated cultural knowledge and several posters were developed which can be used in the future. Discussion in the community about mental health and finding new ways to tackle it and work with mental health services to enhance SEWB has increased. The tenets of the project of promoting healing and empowerment of individuals and groups were critical to the success of the project. It began as a language project but developed into increased shared understanding and it demonstrated the importance of traditional cultural methods such as story-telling and art in the healing process.

Postscript

These resources are all available to Healthy Options Australia employees, student and volunteers from the library database. Please email the library if you experience any problems in accessing them.

library@hoa.org.au